My notes on writing

The Machanics of the Story

Definitions

A run on sentence is a sentence with more than two “and”s.

Reins are what you control your horse with

Reigns are what kings do

Shutter window dressing

Shudder shaking badly

Wonder uncertain or amazed

Wander walk aimlessly

Lay The action is done for something

Lie What something does

Further is in your head

Farther is on a map

Complimentary To express approval

Parts of Speach

Noun:

Indentfies or names a person, place, thing, action,, or quality

Two types: 1. Proper 2. Common

!. A proper noun names a particular person, place, or thing and ALWAYS begins with a capital letter.

  1. A common noun names a type of person, place, or thing. There are three kinds of common noun. 1. Concrete, 2. Abstract, and 3. Collective
  2. Something you can feel or touch is a concreate noun.
  3. Something you cannot feel or touch is an abstract noun.
  4. A group pf people, places., or things is a collective noun.

The spelling of a singular noun almost always changes when it becomes plural by adding an “s” or “es”.

Appositives:

A noun or unit of words acting as a noun whose meaning is a direct copy or extension of the meaning of the preceeding noun in the sentence (explains or expands the noun.

Possessives:

A noun whose form has changed to show posession. With a singular noun add an apostrophe, and “s”, or when it ends in “s” omit the extra “s” after the apsotrophe. With a plural noun add an apostrophe if it ends in “s” – if not add an aprostophe and an “s”. With a compound noun only the last word takes the possessive form, as with two or more nouns that possess the same thing.  When two or more bouns possess individula things each get the possessive form.

Pronoun

A word that represents a person, place, or thing is a pronoun. There are 5 classes. !. Personal, 2. Relative, 3. Demonstrative, 4. Indifinate, 5. Introgative.

  1. Personal first person is the person speaking, second person is the person spoken to, and third person is the person or thing spoken about.
  2. A reflective pronoun is formed from certain personal pronouns by adding the suffix “self” or “selves” Reflective pronouns reflect the action back to the subject so there must be a subject to which it reflects. An intensive reflective pronoun adds force or emphesis to the noun. Example: You yourself must go.
  3. A relative pronoun introduces a descriptive clause – which, that, who, whoever, whose, whom.
  4. A demonstrative pronoun is used to point out a particular person, place, or thing – this, that, these, or those.
  5. An introgative pronoun asks a question such as who?, what?, or which?

Pronoun cases:

  1. Nominative, 2. Objective, and Possessive
  2. A nominative pronoun is a pronoun that is the subject or part of the subject of a sentence – or a pronoun that is a predicate ( the verb or verbal phrase that asserts something about the subject – example: the word “green” in “Grass is green.”).
  3. Objective pronouns are direct objects of the verb.
  4. Possessive pronouns show ownership; they never have an aprostophre.

Me and I

One can say “John and I went to the show,” instead of “John and me went to the show,” because “Me” won’t stand alone. In other words one can’t say, “Me wemt to the show.” By the same token one can’t say , “He gave the tickets to John and I,” because “I” won’t stand alone. One must say, “He gave the tickets to John and me.”

Verb

A verb expresses an action or a state of being.

  1. Action: physical or mental
  2. State of being: condition or state of being

Transative verb

A transative verv is an action performed on someone or something (the direct object) and sometimes the indirect object.Example: “The captain handed us our orders.” “Handed is the verb, us is the direct object (what?), orders is the indirect object (whom? Or what? – for whom? Or for what?).

Intransative verb

An intransative verb has no object because no question can be answered.

Linking verbs

A linking verb joins a noun or nouns to another noun or unit of words that make up a noun to rename or describe the first noun. It is always intransative ane expresses a state of being – to be and all forms of to be such as am, are, is, was, and were. Other common linking verbs include act, appear, become, feel, grow look, remain, seem, smell, sound, taste, turn.

An adjetive that follows a linking verv is a Predicate adjetive.

A noun that follows a linking verb is a predicate nominativee.

Voice

The subject of a transative verb either performs or receives the action. A verb whose subject performs is said to be the active voice. A verb whos subject receives is said to be the passive voice.  Example of active: Linda nursed the wounded soldiers. Example of passive: The soldiers were nursed by Linda.

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